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START arrow The Subquark Model in a nutshell
The Subquark Model in a nutshell Print E-mail
Mar 22, 2009 at 07:00 PM

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  1. Only two types of elementary sub-particles exist: subquark x and (anti) subquark y; each of them can appear in 4 spin-rotation states;
    Symmetry of subquark states
    Symmetry of subquark states
    subquarks always appear in pairs; they are internal or external loops from screwed rotating energy ribbon; their structure corresponds to the unknot family in the knot theory (topology).
    Example of internal loop created one of states of subquark x
    Example of internal loop created one of states of subquark x
  2. All particles (leptons, mesons, hadrons, nuclides and interaction bosons) are built from subquark pairs; there is no stiff assumption as for amounts of sub-particles building the given particle (from 2 subquarks in pair to thousands of such pairs connected with oneself and creating structures similar to crystal).
  3. This model is distinguishing not independent "virtual" electrons and positrons (single pairs of subquarks) from independent real particles (carried with γg quanta); they have lepton charges 1 e, but their masses are considerably little (0.036 [MeV]).
  4. A elementary particle appears marked with letter "g"and it has the spin = 3/2 h; besides electron neutrinos it is one of the most important elementary particles appearing in the Universe; is not only corresponding with its parameters to hypothetical gravitino, but bonded with one's anti-g (giving the γg quantum) are taking an active part in all gluon bonds; they are "mass makers" of many particles having begun from the real electron.
  5. From the Subquark Model results, that particles exist with 2 h spin - gravitons G.
  6. In a sense equivalents of quarks from SM (d quarks) are bikquarks bx and by in the Subquark Model; biquarks have 1/3 e charges; they cannot appear separately (it isn't possible to screw energy ribbon together without its break of  in order to create pair of subquarks creating biquark; however nothing is standing in the way so that pairs of  bonded biquarks come into existence with opposite twisting giving the resultant twisting &=0).
  7. Comparing the Subquark Model to the Standard Model is showing that: quarks from SM have subquark structure; different variants of their structure are found, relying on the existence of fraction L (slowly disintegrating) and S (quickly disintegrating) of quarks s and b, as well as their possible asymmetrical breaking decays explaining violating the CP symmetry; the quantum numbers of the smell beginning with the strangeness S for more massive quarks are interpreted as indicators of their type of the crystalline structure:
    Biquark fullerene f20
    Biquark fullerene f20
    S - hexagonal prism, C - pyramidal cube, B - fullerene 60+..., T - fullerene 2160+..., two lightest quarks are straighter structures as solids with a few faces about the form of triangles and squares (or with plane figures); the crystalline structure of quarks of the given type is a base of the preservation of quantum number of the smell, and the disintegration of the quark to the different quark is causing to breaking the rule of preservation of quantum number of the smell, that is to a disintegration of the crystal structure to straighter structure in its construction with emission of excess particles in the form: quanta , neutrinos, leptons and light mesons.
  8. The mechanism worked out for calculating masses of particles allows to calculate their masses in a wide range, beginning from photons (of neutrinos, of particles g, of virtual quanta) through leptons, mesons, baryons, and finishing on nuclides (of hydrogen and helium); it is possible to calculate mass of every bond of the particle from the universal formula, and mass of the entire particle is a sum of individual masses of its internal bonds.
  9. The mechanism of generating masses is strictly connected with the asymmetry of bonds between subquarks in pairs and between these pairs; masses from strong and strong - lepton interactions are distinguished  from residual masses resulting from weak interaction; both types of masses are being calculated from the same universal formula, altering merely two its coupling constants (different for strong and weak interactions) and signs in charge and spin - rotational functions; two coupling constants Aps and Cps for strong and weak interactions are appointed on the basis of most precisely known masses: of electron and of proton (these particles are used as standards); coupling constants Wps and Dps for weak interaction are estimated very thickly on account of the lack of standard mass for appointing them; their values was selected on the basis of the ratio of the constants of weak to strong coupling; examples of calculating masses of some elementary particles: photon γ = 0 [eV],  quantum γo = 0.16 [eV];  quantum-gluon γg = 0.04 [eV]; particle g = 0 [eV], el. neutrino ve = 0 [eV],  muon neutrino vu = 0.25 [eV],  tau neutrino vt = 1.1 [MeV] (version'' 2.8 [MeV]), graviton G = 0.2 [eV].
  10. The model allows for the existence of the fourth generation of leptons; v? neutrino would have mass 91 [MeV].
  11. Because: neutrinos (apart from electron neutrino), virtual quanta, γo, γg, gravitons have mass - they can be sought dark matter; large number of not twisted whirling energy ribbons (without loops - subquarks) with the basic angular momentum 1/2 h can be identified with the dark energy. In the case of local high-energy collisions of different particles they can take over the part of the generated energy and the momentum and after twisting to form additional complementary elementary particles.
  12. Considerable difference in the binding energy amongst the virtual electron and the electron neutrino depending on whether the bond is symmetrical (0.22 [MeV]), whether asymmetrical (1.09 [MeV]) (mutual placing the R rotation of both particles) is explaining appearing of the asymmetry in weak interaction and the reason for violation of parity symmetry.
  13. Detailed analysis of the structure of more massive particles (mass, decays, lifetime) allows to work out their spatial models, for example: charged kaons - 2 variants: in the form of the cube and in the shape of the hexagonal, neutral kaons similarly as charged additionally with distinguishing fraction quickly and slowly disintegrating (decide an amount of quickly disintegrating bonds of asymmetrical biquark pairs), tauon - hextetrahedron, mesons B - structure of fullerene as regular icosahedrons with the 30 bonds, surrounded with truncated icosahedrons, that is 32-faces with the 90 bonds (they are corresponding to the structure of fullerene C60). The total amount of strong bonds would equal 120, what in dividing in asymmetrical and symmetrical biquark bonds is giving: 64Ba + 56Bs = 5 274 [MeV],
    Fusion of the deuterium
    Fusion of the deuterium
    nuclides - compounds from trigonal dipyramid - with the proton and the neutron (12Ba + 9Bs) are worked out models: of deuterium, of tritium, of 3 helium and of 4 helium - their masses are appointed with the accuracy 0.002 % (4He with  0.00002 %).
  14. Geometrical properties of models of nuclides and calculated lengths of bonds especially e-v and e~e imprisoned inside these nuclides let explain the impermanence of the neutron and the tritium.
  15. The Subquark Model in a way is unifying short-distance strong and weak interactions with oneself (the same mechanism of bonds and creating mass in both interactions); if the model is in accordance with reality, then it exactly determines mechanisms of generating of sources of  long-distance interactions (charge and mass), that is for electromagnetic and gravitational field. It can considerably help study the quantum gravity theory  and unifying all interactions.  

 I am inviting to get to know the Subquark Model                         Leszek Ampel
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Last Updated ( May 24, 2013 at 07:40 AM )